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Nature And Scope Of Macro Economics

 Nature and Scope of Macro Economics

Introduction

            Macro Economics is the study of aggregates or averages covering the entire economy, such as total employment, national income, national output, total investment, total consumption, total savings, aggregate supply, aggregate demand and general price level, wage level and cost structure. Otherwise, it is aggregative economics which examines the interrelations among the various aggregates, their determination and causes of fluctuations in them.

Prof. Ackley defines Macro Economics as “Macro Economics deals with economic affairs ‘in the large, it concerns the overall dimensions of economic life. It looks at the total size and shape and functioning of the elephant of economic experience, rather than working of articulation or dimensions of the individual parts. It studies the character of the forest, independently of the tress which compose it.”

Scope and Importance of Macro Economics

Macro Economics is of much theoretical and practical importance. Let us see what are the importance and the scope where macro economics are being used.

  1. To Understand the working of the Economy

    The study of macro economics variables is requisite for considerate the operation of the financial system. Our main economic complexities are associated with the performance of total income, irredundant and the normal price scale in the fiscal. These variables are geometrically measurable in this manner facilitating the probabilities of analysing the effects on the functioning of the economy.

  2. In Economic Policies

    Macro Economics is extremely useful from the view point of the fiscal policy. Modern Governments, particularly, the underdeveloped economies are confronted with innumerable national problems. They are the problems of over population, inflation, balance of payments, general under production etc. The main conscientiousness of these governments rests in the regulation and control of over population, general prices, general volume of commerce, general productivity etc.

    1. In General Unemployment
    2. Redundancy is caused by deficiency of effectual demand. In order eradicate it, effective demand should be raised by increasing total investment, total productivity, total income and consumption. Thus, macro economics has special significance in studying the causes, effects and antidotes of general redundancy.

    3. In National Income
    4. The study of macro economics is very significant for evaluating the overall performance of the economy in terms of national income. This led to the construction of the data on national income. National income data help in anticipating the level of fiscal activity and to comprehend the distribution of income among different groups of people in the economy.

    5. In Economic Growth
    6. The economics of growth is also a study in macro economics. It is on the basis of macro economics that the resources and capabilities of an economy are evaluated. Plans for the overall increase in national income, productivity, employment are framed and executed so as to raise the level of fiscal development of the economy as a whole.

    7. In Monetary Problems
    8. It is in terms of macro economics that monetary problems can be analysed and understood properly. Frequent changes in the value of money, inflation or deflation, affect the economy adversely. They can be counteracted by adopting monetary, fiscal and direct control measures for the economy as a whole.

    9. In Business Cycle
    10. Moreover, macro economics as an approach to fiscal problems started after the great Depression, thus its significance falls in analysing the grounds of fiscal variations and in providing remedies.

  3. For Understanding the Behaviour of Individual Units
  4. For understanding the performance of individual units, the study of macro economics is imperative. Demand for individual products depends upon aggregate demand in the economy. Unless the causes of deficiency in aggregate demand are analysed it is not feasible to understand fully the grounds for a fall in the demand of individual products. The reasons for increase in costs of a specific firm or industry cannot be analysed without knowing the average cost conditions of the whole economy. Thus, the study of individual units is not possible without macro economics.

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